Tool Box

toolboxA toolbox (also called tool chest or workbox) varies with the craft of the owner. The purpose of the toolbox is to organize, carry, and protect the owner’s tools used for trade, hobby or DIY.

Hand Tools

A hand tool is a device for performing work on a material or a physical system using only hands. The hand tools can be manually used employing force, or electrically powered, using electrical current. Virtually every type of tool can be a hand tool and many have also been adapted as power tools, which get their motive power from motors or engines rather than from human mechanical action.

Power Tools

A power tool is a tool powered by an electric motor, an internal combustion engine, a steam engine, compressed air, direct burning of fuels and propellants, or even natural power sources like wind or moving water. Power tools are classified as either stationary or portable, where portable means handheld. They are used in industry, in construction, and around the house for driving, drilling, cutting, shaping, sanding, grinding, polishing, painting, and heating. Stationary power tools for metalworking are usually called machine tools. The term machine tool is not usually applied to stationary power tools for woodworking, although such usage is occasionally heard, and in some cases, such as drill presses and bench grinders, exactly the same tool is used for both woodworking and metalworking.

Stationary power tools are prized not only for their speed, but for their accuracy. A table saw not only cuts faster than a hand saw, but the cuts are smoother, straighter and more square than even the most skilled man can do with a hand saw. Lathes produce truly round objects that cannot be made in any other way.
Common power tools include the drill, various types of saws, the router, the electric sander, and the lathe.

The term power tool is also used in a more general sense, meaning a technique for greatly simplifying a complex or difficult task.

Finish Tools

The final step in the process usually involves grinding, sanding, or machining the component in order to achieve the desired dimensional accuracies, physical shape and surface finish using a finish tool.

Wood finishing refers to the process of embellishing and/or protecting the surface of a wooden material. The process starts with surface preparation, either by sanding by hand (typically using a sanding block or power sander), scraping, or planing. Imperfections or nail holes on the surface may be filled using wood putty or pores may be filled using wood filler. Often, the wood’s colour is changed by staining, bleaching, ammonia fuming and a number of other techniques. Some woods such as pine or cherry do not take stain evenly, resulting in “blotching”. To avoid blotching, a barrier coat such as shellac or “wood conditioner” is applied before the stain. Gel stains are also used to avoid blotching.

Once the wood surface is prepared and stained, a number of coats of finish may be applied, often sanding between coats. Commonly used wood finishes include wax, shellac, drying oils (such as linseed oil or tung oil), lacquer, varnish, or paint. Other finishes called “oil finish” or “Danish oil” are actually thin varnishes with a relatively large amount of oil and solvent. Water-based finishes can cause what is called “raising the grain” where surface fuzz emerges and requires sanding down.

Finally the surface may be polished or buffed using steel wool, pumice, rotten stone and other polishing or rubbing compounds depending on the shine desired. Often, a final coat of wax can be applied over the finish to add a slight amount of protection.

French polishing is not polishing as such, but a method of applying many thin coats of shellac using a rubbing pad, yielding a very fine glossy finish.

Special tools used to apply wood finishes include rags, rubbing pads, brushes, and spray guns. The processes involved and the terminology for the materials used are quite different in Britain than the processes and terms used in the USA. For instance, the process of replicating the look and feel of traditional French polished wood is more commonly done in the UK by “pulling over” precatalysed lacquer, within 24 hours of spraying, whereas in the U.S. a “rubbed” finish is more common.

Personal Protective Equipment

Personal protective equipment (PPE) refers to protective clothing, helmets, goggles, or other garment or equipment designed to protect the wearer’s body from injury by blunt impacts, electrical hazards, heat, chemicals, and infection, for job-related occupational safety and health purposes, and in sports, martial arts, combat, etc. Personal armor is combat-specialized protective gear. In British legislation the term PPE does not cover items such as armour. The terms “protective gear” and “protective clothing” are in many cases interchangeable; “protective clothing” is applied to traditional categories of clothing, and “gear” is a more general term and preferably means uniquely protective categories, such as pads, guards, shields, masks, etc. Items such as fire extinguishers, first aid kits are equipment to support the personal protection of the subject. Police use handcuffs, tasers, battens and handguns as PPE.

The use of personal protective equipment is to reduce employee exposure to hazards when engineering and administrative controls are not feasible or effective to reduce these risks to acceptable levels.